In our ever-evolving digital landscape, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has embraced technology to streamline the process of filing information returns. For businesses and entities in the United States, understanding the nuances of electronic filing is crucial. This guide aims to demystify the requirements, options, and benefits associated with filing information returns electronically.

Who must file Information Returns Electronically?

In the intricate landscape of tax regulations, filing information returns is a crucial obligation for any entity engaged in trade or business. Whether you’re a corporation, partnership, individual, estate, or trust, understanding the intricacies of reportable transactions and the associated filing requirements is paramount. This comprehensive guide aims to demystify the Internal Revenue Code’s mandates and associated regulations, providing clarity on the common payments, due dates, and filing procedures.

Understanding the Basics

Any person involved in a trade or business is obliged to file information returns for reportable transactions during the calendar year. This obligation extends to various entities, including corporations, partnerships, individuals, estates, and trusts. The fundamental purpose is to report these transactions to the IRS and furnish statements to the other party involved in the transaction, such as recipients of income. The requirement to file information returns is firmly rooted in the Internal Revenue Code and its associated regulations.

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Common Payments Reported

While not exhaustive, the following list outlines some of the most common payments reported on information returns:

  • General reporting
  • Education reporting
  • Health insurance reporting
  • Transfers of stock reporting
  • Retirement reporting

It’s important to note that this is not an exhaustive list, and the absence of a payment type does not imply it is not reportable. For specific information on a payment type, refer to the relevant form and its instructions.

The Evolution of Electronic Filing Thresholds

Gone are the days of hefty filing requirements. In a significant shift, the IRS has redefined the threshold for mandatory electronic filing. As of the latest regulations, no person is mandated to file information returns electronically unless the person is required to file a minimum of 10 returns during a calendar year. This monumental shift from the previous threshold of 250 returns brings about a more accessible and streamlined process for businesses of all sizes.

For comprehensive details, refer to the IRS and Treasury final regulations on e-file for businesses and 26 CFR § 301.6011-2.

Options for Electronic Filing

Several avenues cater to the diverse needs of businesses filing information returns. Let’s explore some of the key electronic filing options:

FIRE (Filing Information Returns Electronically) System

The FIRE System accommodates various information returns, including Forms 1042-S, 1097-BTC, 1098 Series, 1099 Series, 3921, 3922, 5498 Series, 8027, 8955-SSA, 8596, and W-2G. This robust system simplifies the electronic filing process for businesses, ensuring efficiency and accuracy.

IRIS (Information Returns Intake System)

The IRIS system stands out as a free, online portal designed for e-filing Form 1099 for tax year 2022 onwards. With no special software requirements, IRIS offers businesses of all sizes a seamless platform for electronic filing. Dive into the user-friendly experience with insights from Publication 5717, Information Returns Intake System (IRIS), Taxpayer Portal User Guide.

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SSA (Social Security Administration) Electronic Filing

Employers dealing with a combined total of 10 or more information returns, including Forms W-2, must embrace electronic filing. The SSA’s Business Services Online (BSO) platform or a call to 800-772-6270 (TTY 800-325-0778) provides specifications for electronic filing of Forms W-2.

IDES (International Data Exchange Service)

Forms 8966, FATCA Report, find their electronic home in the International Data Exchange Service (IDES) System. Financial institutions must electronically file Form 8966, while all other filers are strongly encouraged to join the digital wave. Dive into the specifics with the International Data Exchange Service guidelines.

AIR (Affordable Care Act Information Returns System)

Navigating the Affordable Care Act’s complex information returns is made simpler through the ACA Information Returns System, AIR. Businesses can electronically file Form 1094-B, Form 1095-B, Form 1094-C, and Form 1095-C. Explore the intricacies with the Affordable Care Act Information Returns (AIR) guidelines.


The digital era has revolutionized the way businesses approach information return filing. Understanding the options and requirements for electronic filing is paramount. Whether you’re a small business owner or a larger entity, embracing electronic filing not only ensures compliance but also streamlines processes for enhanced efficiency.

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